• ISSN: 1308-9412 * e-ISSN: 2757-7120
  • 0(256) 214 48 21

Issue 21

Issue 21

  • Period: 2018 - July - December 2018
  • Volume: 10


  Fatih ORTA


The Conquest of Jarusalem in The Era Of Hz. Omar


Jarusalem is one of the most important geographies of the world as the birth place

of Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Especially because of this Jarusalem has been one of

the most major conflicttopics on thes overeignty of theregion. One of these conflicts was in

the time of Hz. Omar when the Muslims conquered the city. The Muslims became the solely

so vereign of the city from that time in which they at thes ame time institutionalize the

Islamic State.

  16 - 22

  Jarusalem, Hz.Omar, Diplomacy, Islam, 638.


  Buðra SARI


Achilles Heels of the Palestinian Resistance: The Conflict Between Hamas and Fatah


Only a small piece of land that is Gaza Strip and West Bank has remained in the hands of

Palestinians as a result of the ongoing policies of the State of Israel for decades. Having control on

these territories, Palestine is geographically divided into two parts. Palestine today is also politically

divided since Gaza Strip is controlled by Hamas and West Bank by Fatah. While weakening the

Palestinian resistance and strengthening the Israeli position, these two organizations have disagreements

and even conflict with each other for many years. Consequently, Palestinian resistance

continuously loses ground politically and militarily. As Palestinian resistance weakens, Israel and

its allies are able to implement their policies with respect to Palestinian question more freely. Recognizing

Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, the decision of moving the US embassy in Israel from Tel

Aviv to Jerusalem is a clear evidence of such freedom of movement. From this point, the conflict

between Hamas and Fatah is an important fact undermining the effectiveness of Palestinian resistance.

Therefore, this study questions the underlying reasons of the conflict between the two. It

appears that their ideological differences with respect to the future of Palestine lie at the bottom of

the conflict between Hamas and Fatah. In addition to this, the Israeli and US policies to obstruct

Hamas-Fatah rapprochement deepen their conflict. Based on this argument, this study scrutinizes

the political and ideological factors leading to the political and geographical division in Palestine

together with the Israeli and US policies to deepen this division.

  23 - 39

  Hamas, Fatah, Palestinian Resistance, Muslim Brotherhood, Israel


  Huseyin Sefa DUNDAR


The Life of Kamil Pasha The Governor Of Al-Quds


One of the most importan this to ricallocations of the World, Al-Quds, has not only

been thebirth place of three divinereligions but also been as one of the leading places of political

struggle in history. Especially just after theemergence of Islam, the city gained it shighest

importan ceamong the Muslim populations. During theer a of the Ottoman Empire, the city

was governed under the political control of the several local states. When the transformation

of the governmental structure with in the modernisation process in the Ottoman Empire, Al-

Qudsstarted to be governed by govern or sappointed by the central government. In this work,

the Al-Qudsgovernorshipandone of the leading governors of it, Kamil Pasha’s life will be


  40 - 48

  Al-Quds, Governor, Kamil Pasha, ConstitutionalPeriod


  Kenan Ziya TAS


Jarusalem: Saladin And Cemal Pasha


Jarusalem, which has beenone of themostimportantplacesofthehistory of humanity,

wascapturedbytheChristiansviaCrusades in thebeginning of the 12th century. Afterthemilitaryvictory

of Saladin, Jarusalemwasconqueredagainand in thehands of theMuslimsagain,

Jarusalem had been in comfortablepositionduringtheOttomanera.

Inthisessay, theJewishmigrationtothePalestinianregion, theefforts of GermansandRussianstotakeplace

in theMiddle East in the 19th century, andthepoliticalefforts of UnionandProgressParty

of thelateOttomanperiodtopreventtheseefforts of the Great Powers will be

analyzed. Withinthatconcept, one of theleadingpoliticalfigures of UnionandProgress, Cemal

Pasha’sactivities in Jarusalemandtheconstruction of SalahaddinAyyubiIslamicComplexwill be


  49 - 53

  Jarusalem, Saladın, Cemal Pasha, Salahaddin Ayyubi Islamic Complex


  Muhittin CEKEN


A Holy City Within the Struggle of Sovereignty Between the Byzantine Empire and the Sasanids: Jarusalem


Jerusalem, with its ancient history, has been a city that has attracted the attention of many

states throughout the history and great struggles has been given for its sake because because of its

geopolitical location and its fertile lands. Jerusalem, which started to come to the forefront with its

religious identity with the settlements of the Israelites, by the IVth century Christianity, by the VIIth

century and it has become the only city accepted as sacred by three heavenly religions. Because of its

religious and geopolitical factors, Jerusalem has been the most contetsted city. It has been the scene of a

series of struggles from ancient times to the present. When it came to the VIIth century, it became one

of the contention fields of the two most powerful empires of the period:Byzantine Empire and Sassanids,

which emerged as rivals in the East. Jerusalem, which has changed hands twice between these

two empires in about a quarter century, has become the main element of the struggle of these two empires.

In our study, we will evaluate the influence of the Byzantine-Sassanid wars, one of the most

characteristic domination struggles of the VII. century, on Jerusalem and the Jews and Christians who

formed the population of Jerusalem during this period.

  54 - 71

  Jerusalem, Judaism, Christianity, Roman-Byzantine, Sasanian, Heraklius


  Cemal USTUN


Saladin Eyyubi and The Conquest Of Jarusalem


After the battle of Malazgirt, the Byzantine Empire left the eastern part of Anatolia to

the Turcomans and the Seljuki State. After that besides the Seljuki State, lots of autonomous

Turkish beyliks were founded in Anatolia that at the end left smaller are a to the Byzantine Empire.

So as to get out of that harsh atmosphere, the Byzantine Emper or demanded the militaryaid of

the Pope of Roman Catholic Church. As the Pope saw this demand as a new chance to make the

politicaland military aims of the Church to wards the East true, the Roman Catholic Church

targeted Jarusalem as a region to be captured. Inreality, there alaim was to send theTurk sout

of Anatolia and Syrian-Palestinianregion. Eventually, after the constrcution of the First Crusade

under the leadership of the Pope in 1096, the Crusaders invaded Urfa, Antakya and Jarusalem.

With the military efforts of the Turcomansand the Seljuks of Anatolia, the Second

Crusade of 1101 was prevented successfully, but the conquest of Jarusalem by the Muslims could

not be managed. After the death of Nureddin Zengi, the leader of Mousoul Governorship,

Saladin got the leadership of the governorship instead of Zengi. Before the conquest of

Jarusalem, Saladin gathered the Muslims together as a form of Islamic unity. At the end, in the

battle of Hıttin in 1187, Saladin defeated the Crusadersand conquested Jarusalem.

  72 - 85

  Saladin, Crusaders, Jarusalem, Battle of Hıttin, Turks, ByzantineEmpire.


  Emre KURT


The Role of Israel in Turkey’s Relations with The Arab States


The subject of this study is the role of Israel in Turkey’s relations with the Arab states.

In this regard, the role of the policies against Israel will be argued to impact Turkey’s rapprochement

with Arab states. For this purpose, Turkey’s policies against the Arab states since

1923 and the role of Israel in determination of these policies will be analyzed. Underpinned by

outcomes of the historical analysis, it will be highlighted that Turkey, considering the national

interests and security, had better ensure the balance in relations with the Arab States and

Israel in the Middle East.

  86 - 101

  Turkish Foreign Policy, Middle East, ArabStates, Israel, Balance




From Yom Kippur to Second Lebanon War: State-Society Complex and Approach to War in Israel


This study deals with the Israel’s state-society complex in the context of psychological

defeat feeling after the 1973 Yom Kippur War and Israeli society’s approach to war. It is aimed

to reanalyze the social transformation following the 1973 war in the context of the 2006

Second Lebanon War. The impact of public opinion over the decision making process will be

focused and the narrative that Israel had the decisive victory despite failing to reach the objectives

set will be dealt with. Besides, the conditions of both wars affected by the dynamics in

regional and global level will be integrated into evaluation.

  102 - 114

  Israel, Hezbollah, Yom Kippur War, Second Lebanon War


  Musa GUMUS


Struggle Against Cholera 1902-1903 From Jarusalem the Sherif to Damascus the Sherif: a Reports Narrative


Epidemic and contagious diseases like cholera are considered as important

historical events in the experience of mankind. Increase of epidemics during the 19th

century, depending on the improvement of transportation facilities, necessiated an

international cooperation for struggle against such diseases. International Sanitary

Conference of Paris in 1851 was the first international step taken on this issue. After

this point, struggle against such diseases became much more systematised. Epidemics

caused serious problems in Ottoman Empire too. Especially during the haj season,

epidemics that were experienced in regions around the haj routes, resulted in

serious population losses and several troubles. In the face of this situation, Ottoman

Empire too adopted a more systematised struggle method against epidemics and

minimised the losses. Bonkowski Pasha was among the first persons that come to

mind when talking about struggle against cholera in Ottoman Empire. Struggle against

the increasing numbers of cholera cases required a new and intensive planning.

The case that constitues a sample for such struggle is the cholera epidemic of 1902-

1903 that affected a region extending from Jerusalem to Damascus. Bonkowski Pashas

implementations for the control of this epidemic, and his 10 December 1903 dated

report in which he elucidated them was important in the struggle against cholera.

In this study, we will try to handle the methods that were implemented in Ottoman

Empire for struggle against cholera, encountered difficulties and role of ignorance in

the endangering of public health in the context of this report.

  115 - 132

  Struggle Against Cholera, Bonkowski Pasha, Jarusalem the sherif, Damascus, Ottoman state 1902-1903.


  Filiz COLAK


Menteşe (Muðla) Deputıes In The First Grand National Assembly And Theır Servıces In The Parlıament (1920–1923)


The First Grand National Assembly of Turkey, who successfully fought the

National Campaign and founded the Republic of Turkey, was opened on 23 April

1920 in Ankara after Meclis-i Mebusan was dissolved on 11 April 1920 due to the Allied

occupation of İstanbul on 16 March 1922. This Assembly was gathered under

extraordinary conditions and continued to operate between the years 1920 and 1923.

The First Grand National Assembly was determined by the method of electing

five deputies from every district regardless of population figures. These were the

deputies represented Muðla: Emin Kamil Efendi, Ethem Fehmi Bey (Arslanlı), Hacı

Ahmet Efendi, Hamza Hayati Bey (Öztürk), Kasım Nuri Bey, Mahmut Bey (Hendek),

Mesut Efendi, Rıfat Efendi (Börekçi), A.Sadettin Bey (Özsan), Ziya Bey and T. Rüşdü

Bey (Aras). Among these deputies, Emin Kamil Efendi resigned on 5 June 1920;

Mahmut Bey became martyr two days before the opening of the Grand National Assembly

on 21 April 1920; Hacı Ahmet Efendi, Kasım Nuri Efendi and Ziya Beys also

resigned before attending the Grand National Assembly. Rıfat Efendi was appointed

to Ankara Office of Mufti and therefore resigned on 27 October 1920.

In this study we will examine the activities of Menteşe deputies of the First

Grand National Assembly, and also their commission memberships, the positions

they took in factions in the Parliament. We limit this study to the activities of Menteşe

deputies during the First Grand National Assembly and exclude their other activities

during the National Campaign and in the Second Grand National Assembly or

other legislative periods. TBMM Zabıt Cerideleri (Official Recordings from The

Grand National Assembly Proceedings) and Gizli Celse Görüşmeleri (Closed Session

Talks) are mainly used for our research.

  133 - 156

  Bodrum, Deputy, The Grand National Assembly, Menteşe, Muðla


  Orhan KACAR



... I was a child named Rubar who was in the bloom of my youth at the age of seventeen. I lived in a small village in Aleppo. Every morning I wake up with the voice of the roosters, At noon I was coming to myself with the voices of the birds, In the evening when the darkness descends, I run home due to the sound of the cold, hard blowing wind from the mountain...

  162 - 185




Hide And Seek

Suddenly there was a sound. The earth is shaken, the sky wailed with the intensity of the explosion severity. The little girl started crying. She was scared and was shivering while crying. She ran and hugged her father. Because her father would protect her. He was so strong. He knows everything, sees everything and protects everybody. But her dad only did not know how to play hide-and-seek. He was always defeated. Zehra hid and her father could never find her. How was it happening? How was Zehra hiding so well?

  186 - 210


  Mehmet Akif DAMAR


Were we?

It is a story of someone who came to earth in a time of pain and struggle, it is my story. When I was born I neither knew my country nor the smell of its land. My family had to leave their country to get rid of the tyranny's persecution. I was born as a child of earth, air, rain and screams. When I first opened the eye, I saw death compared to other babies...

  211 - 234