The Conquest of Jarusalem in The Era Of Hz. Omar
Jarusalem is one of the most important geographies of the world as the birth place
of Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Especially because of this Jarusalem has been one of
the most major conflicttopics on thes overeignty of theregion. One of these conflicts was in
the time of Hz. Omar when the Muslims conquered the city. The Muslims became the solely
so vereign of the city from that time in which they at thes ame time institutionalize the
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Jarusalem, Hz.Omar, Diplomacy, Islam, 638.
Achilles Heels of the Palestinian Resistance: The Conflict Between Hamas and Fatah
Only a small piece of land that is Gaza Strip and West Bank has remained in the hands of
Palestinians as a result of the ongoing policies of the State of Israel for decades. Having control on
these territories, Palestine is geographically divided into two parts. Palestine today is also politically
divided since Gaza Strip is controlled by Hamas and West Bank by Fatah. While weakening the
Palestinian resistance and strengthening the Israeli position, these two organizations have disagreements
and even conflict with each other for many years. Consequently, Palestinian resistance
continuously loses ground politically and militarily. As Palestinian resistance weakens, Israel and
its allies are able to implement their policies with respect to Palestinian question more freely. Recognizing
Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, the decision of moving the US embassy in Israel from Tel
Aviv to Jerusalem is a clear evidence of such freedom of movement. From this point, the conflict
between Hamas and Fatah is an important fact undermining the effectiveness of Palestinian resistance.
Therefore, this study questions the underlying reasons of the conflict between the two. It
appears that their ideological differences with respect to the future of Palestine lie at the bottom of
the conflict between Hamas and Fatah. In addition to this, the Israeli and US policies to obstruct
Hamas-Fatah rapprochement deepen their conflict. Based on this argument, this study scrutinizes
the political and ideological factors leading to the political and geographical division in Palestine
together with the Israeli and US policies to deepen this division.
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Hamas, Fatah, Palestinian Resistance, Muslim Brotherhood, Israel
Huseyin Sefa DUNDAR
The Life of Kamil Pasha The Governor Of Al-Quds
One of the most importan this to ricallocations of the World, Al-Quds, has not only
been thebirth place of three divinereligions but also been as one of the leading places of political
struggle in history. Especially just after theemergence of Islam, the city gained it shighest
importan ceamong the Muslim populations. During theer a of the Ottoman Empire, the city
was governed under the political control of the several local states. When the transformation
of the governmental structure with in the modernisation process in the Ottoman Empire, Al-
Qudsstarted to be governed by govern or sappointed by the central government. In this work,
the Al-Qudsgovernorshipandone of the leading governors of it, Kamil Pasha’s life will be
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Al-Quds, Governor, Kamil Pasha, ConstitutionalPeriod
Kenan Ziya TAS
Jarusalem: Saladin And Cemal Pasha
Jarusalem, which has beenone of themostimportantplacesofthehistory of humanity,
wascapturedbytheChristiansviaCrusades in thebeginning of the 12th century. Afterthemilitaryvictory
of Saladin, Jarusalemwasconqueredagainand in thehands of theMuslimsagain,
Jarusalem had been in comfortablepositionduringtheOttomanera.
Inthisessay, theJewishmigrationtothePalestinianregion, theefforts of GermansandRussianstotakeplace
in theMiddle East in the 19th century, andthepoliticalefforts of UnionandProgressParty
of thelateOttomanperiodtopreventtheseefforts of the Great Powers will be
analyzed. Withinthatconcept, one of theleadingpoliticalfigures of UnionandProgress, Cemal
Pasha’sactivities in Jarusalemandtheconstruction of SalahaddinAyyubiIslamicComplexwill be
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Jarusalem, Saladın, Cemal Pasha, Salahaddin Ayyubi Islamic Complex
A Holy City Within the Struggle of Sovereignty Between the Byzantine Empire and the Sasanids: Jarusalem
Jerusalem, with its ancient history, has been a city that has attracted the attention of many
states throughout the history and great struggles has been given for its sake because because of its
geopolitical location and its fertile lands. Jerusalem, which started to come to the forefront with its
religious identity with the settlements of the Israelites, by the IVth century Christianity, by the VIIth
century and it has become the only city accepted as sacred by three heavenly religions. Because of its
religious and geopolitical factors, Jerusalem has been the most contetsted city. It has been the scene of a
series of struggles from ancient times to the present. When it came to the VIIth century, it became one
of the contention fields of the two most powerful empires of the period:Byzantine Empire and Sassanids,
which emerged as rivals in the East. Jerusalem, which has changed hands twice between these
two empires in about a quarter century, has become the main element of the struggle of these two empires.
In our study, we will evaluate the influence of the Byzantine-Sassanid wars, one of the most
characteristic domination struggles of the VII. century, on Jerusalem and the Jews and Christians who
formed the population of Jerusalem during this period.
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Jerusalem, Judaism, Christianity, Roman-Byzantine, Sasanian, Heraklius
Saladin Eyyubi and The Conquest Of Jarusalem
After the battle of Malazgirt, the Byzantine Empire left the eastern part of Anatolia to
the Turcomans and the Seljuki State. After that besides the Seljuki State, lots of autonomous
Turkish beyliks were founded in Anatolia that at the end left smaller are a to the Byzantine Empire.
So as to get out of that harsh atmosphere, the Byzantine Emper or demanded the militaryaid of
the Pope of Roman Catholic Church. As the Pope saw this demand as a new chance to make the
politicaland military aims of the Church to wards the East true, the Roman Catholic Church
targeted Jarusalem as a region to be captured. Inreality, there alaim was to send theTurk sout
of Anatolia and Syrian-Palestinianregion. Eventually, after the constrcution of the First Crusade
under the leadership of the Pope in 1096, the Crusaders invaded Urfa, Antakya and Jarusalem.
With the military efforts of the Turcomansand the Seljuks of Anatolia, the Second
Crusade of 1101 was prevented successfully, but the conquest of Jarusalem by the Muslims could
not be managed. After the death of Nureddin Zengi, the leader of Mousoul Governorship,
Saladin got the leadership of the governorship instead of Zengi. Before the conquest of
Jarusalem, Saladin gathered the Muslims together as a form of Islamic unity. At the end, in the
battle of Hıttin in 1187, Saladin defeated the Crusadersand conquested Jarusalem.
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Saladin, Crusaders, Jarusalem, Battle of Hıttin, Turks, ByzantineEmpire.
The Role of Israel in Turkey’s Relations with The Arab States
The subject of this study is the role of Israel in Turkey’s relations with the Arab states.
In this regard, the role of the policies against Israel will be argued to impact Turkey’s rapprochement
with Arab states. For this purpose, Turkey’s policies against the Arab states since
1923 and the role of Israel in determination of these policies will be analyzed. Underpinned by
outcomes of the historical analysis, it will be highlighted that Turkey, considering the national
interests and security, had better ensure the balance in relations with the Arab States and
Israel in the Middle East.
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Turkish Foreign Policy, Middle East, ArabStates, Israel, Balance
From Yom Kippur to Second Lebanon War: State-Society Complex and Approach to War in Israel
This study deals with the Israel’s state-society complex in the context of psychological
defeat feeling after the 1973 Yom Kippur War and Israeli society’s approach to war. It is aimed
to reanalyze the social transformation following the 1973 war in the context of the 2006
Second Lebanon War. The impact of public opinion over the decision making process will be
focused and the narrative that Israel had the decisive victory despite failing to reach the objectives
set will be dealt with. Besides, the conditions of both wars affected by the dynamics in
regional and global level will be integrated into evaluation.
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Israel, Hezbollah, Yom Kippur War, Second Lebanon War
Struggle Against Cholera 1902-1903 From Jarusalem the Sherif to Damascus the Sherif: a Reports Narrative
Epidemic and contagious diseases like cholera are considered as important
historical events in the experience of mankind. Increase of epidemics during the 19th
century, depending on the improvement of transportation facilities, necessiated an
international cooperation for struggle against such diseases. International Sanitary
Conference of Paris in 1851 was the first international step taken on this issue. After
this point, struggle against such diseases became much more systematised. Epidemics
caused serious problems in Ottoman Empire too. Especially during the haj season,
epidemics that were experienced in regions around the haj routes, resulted in
serious population losses and several troubles. In the face of this situation, Ottoman
Empire too adopted a more systematised struggle method against epidemics and
minimised the losses. Bonkowski Pasha was among the first persons that come to
mind when talking about struggle against cholera in Ottoman Empire. Struggle against
the increasing numbers of cholera cases required a new and intensive planning.
The case that constitues a sample for such struggle is the cholera epidemic of 1902-
1903 that affected a region extending from Jerusalem to Damascus. Bonkowski Pashas
implementations for the control of this epidemic, and his 10 December 1903 dated
report in which he elucidated them was important in the struggle against cholera.
In this study, we will try to handle the methods that were implemented in Ottoman
Empire for struggle against cholera, encountered difficulties and role of ignorance in
the endangering of public health in the context of this report.
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Struggle Against Cholera, Bonkowski Pasha, Jarusalem the sherif, Damascus, Ottoman state 1902-1903.
Menteşe (Muðla) Deputıes In The First Grand National Assembly And Theır Servıces In The Parlıament (1920–1923)
The First Grand National Assembly of Turkey, who successfully fought the
National Campaign and founded the Republic of Turkey, was opened on 23 April
1920 in Ankara after Meclis-i Mebusan was dissolved on 11 April 1920 due to the Allied
occupation of İstanbul on 16 March 1922. This Assembly was gathered under
extraordinary conditions and continued to operate between the years 1920 and 1923.
The First Grand National Assembly was determined by the method of electing
five deputies from every district regardless of population figures. These were the
deputies represented Muðla: Emin Kamil Efendi, Ethem Fehmi Bey (Arslanlı), Hacı
Ahmet Efendi, Hamza Hayati Bey (Öztürk), Kasım Nuri Bey, Mahmut Bey (Hendek),
Mesut Efendi, Rıfat Efendi (Börekçi), A.Sadettin Bey (Özsan), Ziya Bey and T. Rüşdü
Bey (Aras). Among these deputies, Emin Kamil Efendi resigned on 5 June 1920;
Mahmut Bey became martyr two days before the opening of the Grand National Assembly
on 21 April 1920; Hacı Ahmet Efendi, Kasım Nuri Efendi and Ziya Beys also
resigned before attending the Grand National Assembly. Rıfat Efendi was appointed
to Ankara Office of Mufti and therefore resigned on 27 October 1920.
In this study we will examine the activities of Menteşe deputies of the First
Grand National Assembly, and also their commission memberships, the positions
they took in factions in the Parliament. We limit this study to the activities of Menteşe
deputies during the First Grand National Assembly and exclude their other activities
during the National Campaign and in the Second Grand National Assembly or
other legislative periods. TBMM Zabıt Cerideleri (Official Recordings from The
Grand National Assembly Proceedings) and Gizli Celse Görüşmeleri (Closed Session
Talks) are mainly used for our research.
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Bodrum, Deputy, The Grand National Assembly, Menteşe, Muðla
... I was a child named Rubar who was in the bloom of my youth at the age of seventeen. I lived in a small village in Aleppo. Every morning I wake up with the voice of the roosters, At noon I was coming to myself with the voices of the birds, In the evening when the darkness descends, I run home due to the sound of the cold, hard blowing wind from the mountain...
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Hide And Seek
Suddenly there was a sound. The earth is shaken, the sky wailed with the intensity of the explosion severity. The little girl started crying. She was scared and was shivering while crying. She ran and hugged her father. Because her father would protect her. He was so strong. He knows everything, sees everything and protects everybody. But her dad only did not know how to play hide-and-seek. He was always defeated. Zehra hid and her father could never find her. How was it happening? How was Zehra hiding so well?
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Mehmet Akif DAMAR
It is a story of someone who came to earth in a time of pain and struggle, it is my story. When I was born I neither knew my country nor the smell of its land. My family had to leave their country to get rid of the tyranny's persecution. I was born as a child of earth, air, rain and screams. When I first opened the eye, I saw death compared to other babies...
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