• ISSN: 1308-9412 * e-ISSN: 2757-7120
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Issue 25

Issue 25

  • Period: 2020 - Fall-Winter
  • Volume: 12


  Gamze SOLMAZ, Prof.Dr. Celaleddin SERINKAN


The Relationship Between Power Distance and Organizational Silence in Organizations: A Field Research

The distance of power, which Geert Hofstede treats as a cultural dimension and expresses the unfair distribution of power, has a great importance in the relations between individuals at the social organizational level. The farther the distance between the powers causes the stronger to have more control over the behaviors and decisions of the less powerful individuals. Organizational silence behavior, which means that employees do not express their opinions about organizational problems deliberately, is discussed in three dimensions as Acquiescent Silence, Prosocial Silence and Defensive Silence. In this study, it is aimed to empirically examine the effect of power distance on employee’s behavior of organizational silence. For this reason, it is seen that there is a positive relationship between power distance and organizational silence according to the results of the study, which was conducted in the main universe of university employees, where the study, administrative and academic employees were together.

  02 - 19

  Keywords: Power Distance Employee Silence, University, Academician


  Prof.Dr. Mustafa Seref Akin


Ethnographic Research of Demand Factors for Psychological Counseling Services

Demand will increase when the price of a good falls according to the law of supply and demand. However, factors other than the price play an important role in service demand. Notably, the quality of professional services (i.e., legal, financial) varies and cannot be measured in advance. In the article, the demand factors of psychological counseling services as a professional service are examined, and strategies to be followed in entering the market are determined. The demand factors for psychological service are revealed by ethnographic research, which is a challenging subject due to the sensitive issues but offers advantages in showing the selection process in detail. In ethnographic studies, real events and circumstances of people are examined. With a semi-structured interview, 7 counselees were asked to explain in detail the process they went through. The user's behaviors cannot be understood in depth with questionnaires, focus groups, and research reports, which are other qualitative and quantitative methods. It is examined how the clients scan psychologists when they think of receiving psychological services and how they decide to continue and quit. The most crucial factor in demand in psychological service is the reference. Demand in the sector depends on the environmental aspect. Public relations management, such as advertisement and information, does not work. In addition to being a reference to their current counselors, the institution where the psychologist works can be effective. Every satisfied client folds up to bring new clients. The counselee emotionally attaches to the psychology counselor and never thinks to change. Reasons for quitting psychological counseling service are recovery, change of location, financial burden, and attempting to stand alone. It is important that a new psychological counselor should provide good service to existing counselees and start in a reputable institution. Negative feelings before counseling vary from person to person. The most critical change gained after psychological counseling is the evolution of the way of thinking. They gain the ability to comment differently on the same event. The article also discusses prejudices toward seeking psychological services in Turkey.

  21 - 32

  Keywords: Psychological Counseling Service, Demand, Ethnography, Reference




Examining the Promotion Mix in Hotel Businesses: The Case of Kyrgyzstan

The development of the tourism industry necessitates the tourism businesses operating within its structure to proceed in many directions such as the number, variety, and services offered. In this concept, hotel businesses must be able to respond to changing consumer demands, needs, and expectations to survive in competitive conditions. Promotion efforts of hotels are important in terms of promoting services to consumers, persuading them, and providing feedback. The study aims to investigate the promotion efforts of hotel businesses in Kyrgyzstan, which has been declared as a tourism priority sector, and to determine the promotion tools and current practices used.

In the result of the study, it has been founded that the hotels participating in the research lead the internet in promotion, web pages offer very few opportunities for customers, but very few hotels offer services such as online booking and virtual touring the hotel. Another result of the study is that promotion studies differ according to the regions where the hotels are located. For example, resort hotels in Issyk-Kul give importance to participating in fairs, but the hotels in Bishkek don't.

  34 - 42

  Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, hotels, promotion.


  Dr.Oðr.Uyesi Nezahat BELEN


The Importance of the Recent Political History of the Republic of Turkey of September 12, 1980 Coup

In states, there are a lot of viewpoints about the participation of the folks in the government, the relationship between ruler and governed and how these should be. This study has been tried to be handled on two main bases. The first is the civil / national will and the other is the ruling dominance. While expressing the civil / national will in historical development, in our adventure of transition from "naysay ", which is an expression of democracy in itself, to a democratic republic, the ruling power was also mentioned in the context of the 12 September 1980 coup. Turkish Armed Forces itself states that efforts to date in place of the Republic of Turkey, importance has been given the location and characteristics. Especially with the developing and effective civil-national will, the developments in the way of the Turkish Armed Forces to become the "army of the state" were tried to be emphasized.

  44 - 57

  Keywords: Naysayers, State, Army, National Willpower


  Orcun Mutlu


Operation Ajax In The Context Of Non-Intervention Principles In International Law

Operation Ajax planned and executed by the US and Britain in 1953, removed the Iranian Prime Minister Mossadeq from the administration. In context of the principle of non-intervention, which is considered as one of the regulatory principles of international law, Operation Ajax is the subject of the study. The purpose of the study is to reveal what kind of change occurred in Iran policy as a result of the Ajax Operation and to explain what this effect means within the framework of the principle of non-interference which is one of the commandment rules of international law. For this purpose, the legal background related to the principle of non- intervention was provided in the first chapter, and on this basis, Ajax operation was examined. As a result of the primary and secondary source reviewing, it was determined that the USA and Britain were significantly involved in Iran's internal affairs in this operation, established many contacts through the intelligence units, and changed the legitimate regime. At the end of the process where a significant resource has been spent and a systematic destabilization program has been implemented; it will be claimed that the operation does not have any legitimate basis, including the exceptions to the principle of non- intervention. Therefore, it will be underlined that Ajax Operation is performed both as a non- intervention principle and as an action contrary to the prohibition of use and threat of force.

  59 - 69

  Keywords: Non-interventetion, Ajax Operation, Coup, Musaddiq, Iran, USA, Britain, Petroleum Nationalization.