Filiz COLAK; Banu YUCEL
The First Economy Minister of Republic of Turkey Hasan Saka and His Activities in TBMM (1923-1926)
Successfully performing the National Struggle Period I founded the Republic of Turkey, Turkey's Grand National Assembly has passed stringent military and political examination from each of the first period, beginning on 23 April 1920. On the basis of the defense of the homeland, the decision to renew the Assembly was taken on April 1, 1923, with the acceptance of the motion of Esat (İleri) Efendi and 120 of his friends, after 3 years of selfless and controversial, with very different world views and expectations. After the elections, the Second Assembly was opened on 11 August 1923. This Assembly, which will operate until August 2, 1927, was an important period that ensured peace, declared the Republic and tried to heal the wounds of the war by implementing the main Turkish revolutions.
II.TBMM period of economic issues and the Republic of Turkey are one of the most important subjects of study in the first year. For this reason, the Ministry of Economics has always had an important place among the governments established in the Parliament, which is aware of the difficulties of resolving the economic problems of the past and building a new state. With knowledge and experience in economic matters in I.Parliament located in the ministry Hasan Saka, in the new era II.TBMM's been involved in, and the Republic of Turkey's first Minister of Economics. Saka, who served as a minister for many times in his long-term political life as a Trabzon deputy, also served as Prime Minister between 19471949.
The content of this study is based on the fact taht Hasan Saka was appointed to the Deputy of Economics after Mahmut Esat Beys resignation in the Deputy Executive Comittee of the Cabinet of Fethi (Okyar) Bey at the Second TBMM and that he was the Deputy of Economy in the Governments under the chairmanship of Ismet Inonu constitute the activities.
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Keywords: Hasan Saka, Economic, II. TBMM, Parliment
Usage Areas of Ceramic Material and Proposal for Establishing a "Ceramics University" in Our Country
In this study, with an emphasis on the usage areas of ceramic material, the necessity of dividing/branching sub branches of many artistic, scientific, and technological departments and related departments that are not yet branched in various fields related to ceramic materials in different universities in our country and necessity of gathering them under a single roof called "Ceramic University," and its artistic, scientific and technological contributions to our country wil l be included. Ceramic material, which has been among the first occupations of human beings since prehistoric times, takes its place in almost every forehead of our lives, with the advancing years and developing technology, such as brick -tilewindow glass-wall / floor tiles-sanitary ware and architectural building/construction equipment, tableware-kitchen utensils, body prostheses such as teeth and bones / sanitary ware-medicines, engineering tools such as electrical-electronictechnological machinery/equipment parts, etc., besides the functional/religious/decorative/artistic ceramic/tile/glassworks. There are many departments in the fields of ceramic technology, artistic ceramics, and industrial ceramics affiliated to many different faculties, independent from each other regarding the "ceramics" which take place in such wide and detailed areas in our lives. Establishing a "Ceramic University" in order to gather education and training in almost every field in which ceramic material is used under one roof will be a very important step that will contribute to the advanced artistic, scientific, and technological development of our country. The establishment of the mentioned Ceramic University in Kütahya, which is the ceramic (tile) capital of our country, will significantly increase the interest of students, academicians in the relevant field, and the world of business/science/art related to ceramics to the university and therefore to Kütahya.
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Keywords: Ceramic, Ceramic Material, Usage Areas of Ceramic Material, Ceramic Education, Ceramic Unıversıty
Philosophy of Mind Studies: Five Different Approaches in Transition from Apparent to Reality
The number of stars in the galaxy is almost similar to the number of neurons (nerve cells) in a person's brain. We have not yet been able to analyze everything in the universe, but also applies human beings, and there is still a mystical side of man. When a question arises as to where we should not start to make sense of the small universe we carry on our shoulders, the guiding concepts appear as 'brain/mind/consciousness /body'. Different approaches have been presented in the history of philosophy to answer one of the main problems of human history. This arti cle includes five approaches expressed as (i) easy problem (ii) hard problem, (iii) pseudo-problem, (iv) hornswoggle problem, (v) agnosticism on an axis that will support further reading on the arguments and discussion issues of contemporary philosophy of mind will be given. It is the sense of "conscious self" and the subjective/inner quality (qualia) of phenomenal experience that gives rise to different ideas about man or consciousness. These problems, which are caused by the subjective structure of the human being, have occurred when the states of mind are reduced to the neural activity of the brain, behavior or metaphysics by purely functions. To put it in a more general way, the problems have been formed over the question of whether the physical or the phenomenal aspect of the human being has a primary quality. In this study, an evaluation will be made on which claims the five approach styles put forward to reach the reality behind the visible and which ones they eliminate.
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Keywords: Contemporary philosophy of mind, consciousness, body, phenomenal experience, qualia, physical aspect, phenomenal aspect.
Mustafa Seref AKIN
Interior Faces of Individuals Who Raised in The Pandemic Period: Sensitive and Unsensitive
This paper investigates the sensitivity of patients, healthcare professionals, society, and the state to each other during the pandemic period. It is the ethnographic method. 20 interviews were held with healthcare professionals. Pandemy emerged as a social experience in terms of separation into altruistic and selfish ones. Healthcare professionals state that society's moral collapse has emerged, and society does not give the necessary value to self-sacrificing professionals. They think they are in a war where human life is at stake. They believe they are alone in this war. The rude behavior of society keeps healthcare professionals away from their professions. In terms of human values, it is worrying that the society did not come together behind healthcare professionals during the pandemic period.
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Keywords: Sensitivity, Healthcare professionals, Pandemic
Kevser ARMAN; Celaleddin SERINKAN
Evaluation of Companies' CSR Practices from the Perspective of Local and Foreign Consumers
With the increasing social awareness of corporate social responsibility (CSR) all over the world, the concept of CSR attracts great attention both in academic literature and managerial applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the CSR practices of companies with the fuzzy DEMATEL method from the perspective of local and foreign customers. According to the findings obtained from the study, the impact level of CSR practices varies according to the perspectives of local and foreign consumers. Social practices and environmental practices have the most impact on other CRS practices according to the evaluations of the local and foreign decision makers, respectively. It is thought that the results obtained from this study will contribute to the companies operating in Turkey within the scope of CSR strategies.
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Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Local and Foreign Consumers, Fuzzy DEMATEL
Injustice Legitimization Methods in Administration
The concept of justice is a perceptual situation and organizational justice is the perception of individuals regarding whether they are treated fairly within the organization they work for. Managers want to be high perceptions of organizational justice of employees. Because, in employees with low perception of organizational justice, this situation negatively affects employee performance and therefore organizational functioning. For this reason, managers may apply to some methods to ensure that employees perceive their decisions and practices that may be perceived as unfair within the organization as faired. The aim of this study, within the extent of critical theory, is to deal with theoretically the techniques propaganda, perception management, religious influence: belief in the just world, masked resource/disguised management technique and legitimization of system, which have the potential to be used to increase manager legitimacy in manager-managed relationships, and in this way to ensure that all employees are informed.
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Keywords: Justice, Organizational Injustice, Legitimization.
Workshop as a Space for Collective Memory and Art Practice.
With the change of a concept, the practices associated with the concept begin to change. With modernity, the concepts of art and artist have changed, and with the change of these concepts, the spaces and practices related to the concepts have also changed. The change in the concept and space of the workshop as the production space of the work of art is one of them. The workshops, which are traditional artist's spaces, have been replaced by artist studios. While the artist studios are far from the daily life of the society, the workshops are in the daily life. The workshop is not only a place for the production of artwork but also a place to be exhibited. The exhibition spaces of the modern art work are the galleries with their privileged locations. In order for a space to be effective in the construction of collective memory, it must be in the repetition of daily life. A space that is not within the reach of the whole society and outside of its daily life can only be a memory space for a limited or privileged group. Modern artist studios and exhibition spaces are places that are inaccessible to the general public. While the traditional artist's space builds a horizontal relationship with the society, modern spaces such as artist studios and exhibition spaces develop a vertical relationship.
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Keywords: Collective Memory, Space, Art, Artist, Workshop.